ZINC PLATED VS GALVANISED: WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?

What is the difference between zinc-plating & galvanising? And which will be best for your farm fences?

What Does Galvanised Mean?

Galvanisation is when a protective zinc coating is applied to steel or iron, to prevent rusting.

The most common method is hot-dip galvanising. This is when metal parts are fully submerged in a bath of molten zinc.

Zinc plating (also known as electro-galvanising) is a process where zinc is applied by using a current of electricity. While is does provide some rust protection, its thinner coating is not as rust resistant as hot dip galvanising. Its main advantage is it is cheaper and easier to weld.

Be careful when choosing your product! The fact that it says ‘galvanised’ doesn’t mean it’s ‘hot dip galvanised’. Electro-galvanising is another term for zinc plating. So when you see ‘galvanised’ use your newly acquired knowledge to make sure it is hot dip galvanised and not electro-galvanised.

What Can Be Galvanised?

Hot dip galvanising or zinc plating can be used on anything from small nuts and bolts to large beams for buildings. The steel is put in a big bath, where the coating is applied.

If it’s galvanised, it will be dull grey and a little rough. A zinc plated product will be shiny and smooth. A hot dip galvanised product has the best protection against rust, even though it’s a bit ugly.

What Are The Different Galvanisation Processes?

Whether the steel is to be hot dip galvanised or zinc plated it is prepared in a similar way. The steel is cleaned to remove all oils, paint, grease, mill scale (small flakes of metal) and rust in a bath of acid.

Steel, when being hot dip galvanised is dipped into a 450°C bath of molten liquid zinc. The steel and the liquid zinc bond together because of the high temperature. The steel and the zinc become one.

Zinc plating, on the other hand, is immersed in a cold chemical solution of zinc and uses an electrical current to apply a layer of zinc. The thickness of the coating is measured in microns or micrometre’s (μm). Zinc plating requires a minimum thickness of 5μm (.005mm) and a maximum of 25μm (.025mm). It would become too technical and expensive to coat the steel any thicker than this.

Hot dip galvanising requires a minimum thickness of 45μm (.045mm) and goes beyond 100μm (.1mm)

What Does This Mean For You (And Your Fence)?

A product that is hot dip galvanised will have a thicker coating, meaning it will last far longer. Hot dip galvanised coatings give superior protection against corrosion.

The images below show that zinc plated gate hardware will rust over time. This puts more strain on your hinges, stops your gate from swinging smoothly, and looks unsightly.

Difference between dowel bars and tie bars

Dowel bars

Dowel bars are placed at the transverse joints of concrete pavement and they take part in partial wheel load transfer from one slab to its adjacent slab. The dowel bars also allow axial thermal expansion and contraction of the concrete slab along the axis of the dowel.

Dowel bars are Mild Steel bars 30–38 mm diameter and 450 or 500 mm length. They are spaced at 300 mm centre to centre.

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Tie bars

Tie bars are deformed rebars or connectors used for holding faces of rigid slabs in contact to maintain aggregate interlock. Tie bars are not load transferring device. For instance, tie bars are used in longitudinal joints in concrete pavement.

Tie Bars are TOR Steel bars 12 or 16 mm in Diameter (12 is common, 16 is not) of around 640 mm length. Their spacing is variable since it depends upon thickness of concrete surface and width of slab, though typically it varies between 550–640 mm.

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Difference between dowel bars and tie bars

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20 phrases for closing an email

A common problem

We often hear how writing emails in English can cost just too much time. One solution that works for many people is to begin building a “toolbox” of useful phrases. A toolbox is a simple idea – you just start keeping a list of common and useful expressions – perhaps on your desktop or in a notebook next to your keyboard? There’s nothing wrong with reusing some standard phrases if it helps save you time and communicate clearly. You probably already have 2 or 3 sentences you reuse again and again. But sometimes the tone just isn’t right, is it? To help you find the right words when you need them here are 20 great expressions for closing an email. As you read through them ask yourself two simple questions:

1. When would I use this?

2. When will I use this?

Expressions for thanking

  1. Thank you for your help. / time / assistance / support
  2. I really appreciate the help. / time / assistance / support you’ve given me.
  3. Thank you once more for your help in this matter.

Expressions with a future focus

  1. I look forward to hearing from you soon / meeting you next Tuesday.
  2. I look forward to seeing you soon.
  3. I’m looking forward to your reply.
  4. We hope that we may continue to rely on your valued custom.
  5. We look forward to a successful working relationship in the future.
  6. Please advise as necessary.
  7. I would appreciate your immediate attention to this matter.

Expressions for showing them you want to help

  1. If I can be of assistance, please do not hesitate to contact me.
  2. If you require any further information, feel free to contact me.
  3. If you require any further information, let me know.
  4. Please feel free to contact me if you need any further information.
  5. Please let me know if you have any questions.
  6. I hope the above is useful to you.
  7. Should you need any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me.
  8. Please contact me if there are any problems.
  9. Let me know if you need anything else
  10. Drop me a line if I can do anything else for you.

Don’t hesitate to comment below if you have any questions or additional phrases you’ve used that work.

Construction Drawings

Construction Drawings

Detail Design

On large or complex projects the Detail Design stage provides a vital opportunity to further refine the design language set out in the concept or planning stages. This informs Found and the design team the best approach for the construction methodology and approach to services. At Found we are always looking to explore new construction techniques and the innovative use of materials that make a project unique, the Detail Design stage allows valuable time to research and examine this.

During the Detail Design stage the Concept is further developed and the design work of the core design team is progressed until the general approach to a coordinated layout, design and construction method has been completed. This process may require a number of iterations of the design and a series of workshop meetings. Once this process is completed approval of the outline proposals will be required by the client prior to the design team commencing with the Tender Drawings and Specifications. This stage is equivalent to RIBA Stage 3.

Depending on the complexity of the planning requirements of a project the Detail Design stage may need to be carried out in advance so that the technical information produced can be included in the planning submission.

The work undertaken at this stage will vary depending on the size and nature of a project but in most instances the following drawings will be fixed by the end of this stage:

  • Builders Works, Services, Reflected Ceiling and Finishes Plans
  • General Arrangement Plans, Sections and Elevations

Tender Drawings

Tender Drawings form an incredibly important stage in the process of bringing a project to fruition and can define either its success or failure. To ensure that its always a success our approach at Found is to hold a series of design review meetings and showroom visits with our clients taking them through all aspects of the design, layout, materials and fixtures specification for the project and including all the decisions that are made in our drawings, schedules and specifications. In providing concise information at the tender stage we ensure that there is cost certainty for our clients projects minimising the amount of contingency required at the construction stage.

During the Tender Drawing stage the Detail Design drawings are further developed to provide technical definition to the project. Any construction issues and specialist subcontractor packages will be developed and concluded, this process will require a series of design team meetings. The drawings will also incorporate all design issues and amendments raised by the client at the approval presentation at the end of Detailed Design. By the end of this stage a detailed set of information will have been completed that will enable a tender or tenders to be obtained. This stage is equivalent to RIBA Stage 4.

The work undertaken at this stage will vary depending on the size and nature of a project but in most instances the final set of tender information will consist of:

  • Builders Works, Services, Reflected Ceiling and Finishes Plans
  • General Arrangement Plans, Sections and Elevations
  • Individual Room Drawings
  • Detail Drawings
  • Schedules and Specification

Construction Drawings

The Construction Drawing stage commences once a tender or tenders have been returned, analysed and the contract awarded. The stage offers the opportunity to amend the Working Drawings to reflect any value engineering that has been undertaken during the tender process or incorporate alternative suppliers or subcontractors that may have been put forward by the successful tenderer. At the end of this stage a full set of Construction Issue drawings, schedules and specifications will be issued to the appointed contractor so that work can commence onsite.

The work undertaken at this stage will vary depending on the size and nature of a project, the output of information will be similar to that produced at the Tender Drawing stage:

  • Builders Works, Services, Reflected Ceiling and Finishes Plans
  • General Arrangement Plans, Sections and Elevations
  • Individual Room Drawings
  • Detail Drawings
  • Schedules and Specification

Design Development

Similar to the Detailed Design or Tender Drawings produced for UK based projects the drawings produced at this stage will incorporate all design issues and amendments raised by the Client at the concept presentation. The drawings and specifications produced in the design development stage will reflect all, finishes and specifications to all elements in sufficient detail to allow the Clients local architect to commence with the development of Construction Documents which will resolve remaining technical issues and local, building code, CDM and planning requirements.

The work undertaken at this stage will vary depending on the size and nature of a project, the typical output of information would include:

  • Shell/Core drawings inclusive of plans, exterior elevations, building and wall sections and enlarged details.
  • Floor Plan locating new walls with dimensions and noting other important architectural elements or features.
  • Reflected Ceiling Plan which would incorporate the proposed lighting design by the Lighting Designer and also the proposed MEP elements designed by the MEP Engineer.
  • All interior elevations of affected space with critical dimensions and material notations.
  • Critical ceiling details related to form and shape.
  • Critical flooring details which would enhance the understanding of pattern layout or alignments.
  • Critical architectural details that are important to communicate to Client’s Local Architect.
  • Assist in providing additional information and attending meetings to allow for budget pricing.

Construction Documents

Once the project has reached this stage the Client’s Local Architect will be responsible for taking the project forward. Found will assist the Clients Local Architect with Construction Documents ready for the project to be tendered to local contractors. Founds responsibilities at this stage will be:

  • Attend project co-ordination meetings as required.
  • Review and comment on all Construction Documents supplied by Clients Local Architect to confirm design compliance.
  • Produce additional details to clarify design intent.
  • Provide additional clarification if required.

As-Built Drawings

On projects its common for changes to be made during construction because of circumstances that emerge on site or requested changes to the design. As a result as-built drawings are prepared towards the end of the onsite period to reflect what has actually been built.

These drawings will be issued to the contractor at the end of the project to be included within the operations and maintenance manual and the health and safety file. They will also be issued to the client for them to keep on file.

Eight-stage guide for Structural Engineers to implementing BIM on a project

It’s been years since the UK government announced its BIM mandate, large parts of the industry are still getting to grips with what this really means to their business. Trimble guides readers through the key stages, documents, terminology and, above all, processes that are ‘Level 2 BIM’.

The BSI defines Building Information Modelling (BIM) Level 2 maturity as ‘a series of domain and collaborative federated models. The models, consisting of both 3D geometrical and non-graphical data, are prepared by different parties during the project life-cycle within the context of a common data environment’1.

To start on this journey, it requires a plan. In the UK, this is called a digital plan of work (DPoW); the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) DPoW2, published in 2013, is probably best known within the industry, but other plans of work exist for specific organisations within the construction industry, such as Network Rail’s Governance for Railway Investment Projects (GRIP) stages. The RIBA DPoW divides a project into eight stages to cover the whole lifecycle of a built asset:

0.    Strategic definition
1.    Preparation and brief
2.    Concept design
3.    Developed design
4.    Technical design
5.    Construction
6.    Handover and closeout
7.    In use

 

It is this digital plan (Figure 1) that we will use to guide you through delivering BIM, as a structural engineer, on a project.

 

0. Strategic definition
Strategic definition is a new stage that wasn’t in the previous RIBA plan and has been created to ensure that the actual need for a new or amended asset is discussed with a customer. In some cases, it may be decided that no work is needed and a project stops here. This stage is all about identifying the business case for the project and it generally won’t involve a structural engineer, or even much of the collaborative behaviours required to deliver BIM.

1.  Preparation and brief
With an agreed business case in place, the project then moves to this stage, where the foundations for a good BIM project are created. As well as preparing for the physical delivery of the asset, it is at this point that the BIM strategy for a scheme must be determined in order to deliver the greatest benefits to the team.

As a structural engineer, it is at this point that you will probably be appointed to begin your services. As such, this is the time to check whether a project purporting to be a ‘BIM job’ is set up correctly to deliver in this
way. Some of the questions you should ask yourself include:

  • Is there a set of employer’s information requirements (EIRs) (See “Definition of key BIM terms” tab below)?
  • Has any sort of BIM execution plan (BEP) been published?
  • Have task information delivery plans (TIDP) been requested or are any available?
  • Is the BIM protocol included within the contractual documents?
  • Has an information manager (See “What is an Information Manager” tab below) been appointed on the contract?

While there are many other indications of the existence of BIM on a project, these documents, and the processes that project teams need to agree upon, are the key indications that a project is serious about delivering BIM.

2. Concept design
At this stage, the design is still probably quite fluid and so starting to create a detailed 3D model risks being an abortive and wasteful process. Instead, massing models from the architect are likely to be shared around the team in order to test conceptual assumptions. The choice of material for the structural solution may not be fixed either, so simple calculations may be all that are required. What will be more important is ensuring that the information is being prepared correctly and shared in accordance with your own TIDP and the overall project master information delivery plan (MIDP).

However, by the end of this stage of the project, the agreed structural solution should have been determined.

3. Developed design
By this point in the project, real BIM workflows should be taking place and models being created and shared in accordance with the guidance in BS 1192:20073. Domain- specific (i.e. individual discipline) models, such as ones created by a structural engineer, are developed and shared to the common data environment (CDE). These discipline- specific models are then assembled together to create a ‘federated’ model – a single, complete model of the building that allows the collaborative workflows, which BIM is advocating, to happen.

This is also where the suitability codes within BS 1192 become even more important to ensure that the rest of the team understand for what purpose a model or data file has been issued (See “What are suitability codes” tab below). Suitability codes are covered in BS 1192, Table 5 and should be used whenever documents are issued to other parties on the project.

It is at this stage that 3D modelling software can be used to create both geometrically accurate and code-compliant designs, which can be exported as models and shared around the rest of the design team.

4. Technical design
This is the stage where engineering information and the scheme design generally move across to the specialist structural frame fabricator. In a traditional 2D design process, this would normally be done by issuing a set of drawings and accompanying calculations, which would give the fabricator most, but not all, of the information.

However, in a correctly managed BIM workflow, the full design can be shared, via the model, and so the digital processes ensure that the information can be relied upon. This is because it has been coordinated with the rest of the design team and is therefore far more accurate. This thoroughness, the improved coordination and data transparency result in better designs at this point and help to reduce risk, thereby improving profit for all organisations on the project.

Typically, a design team’s model would be passed to the fabricator to work up and complete the design to a fabrication level of detail without the need to build the structural model from scratch; a less wasteful and much more accurate process for both parties.

5. Construction
For an engineer, the construction stage of a project should be the point in time where they can sit back, relax and watch the design take shape on site. However, in the past this has not been the case, with numerous queries and clarifications coming from the site team over the detailing of the project.

With a well-executed BIM project, this should not be the case. The time spent early in the design process creating, checking and coordinating models will ensure that few, if any, requests for information (RFIs) come from the site team. With well-managed BIM processes, coordination and a data-rich model ensure that the construction stage on site goes smoothly, without the need for the structural engineer to revisit their documentation. Therefore, by doing BIM, the risk of overspending on any remaining design fees during this stage is all but mitigated. Remember, good modelling = better fees!

6. Handover and closeout
When the asset has been completed, the handover of agreed construction information takes place, to allow the customer to manage their asset. This is effectively the digital version of issuing operation and maintenance manuals; the difference being that the customer and their team have agreed what was needed from the start, so there should be no surprises. The responsibilities for issuing data are clearly defined through the EIRs and the project BEP.

7. In use
Unless monitoring the structure of an asset is required, it is unlikely that a structural engineer will be required to deliver any services during this stage of a project. By their very nature, structural frames should be low or zero-maintenance items. Maintenance regimes such as painting of exposed steelwork will be covered in Stage 6 and refurbishment of the asset would trigger a whole new cycle of a digital plan.

As this stage-by-stage guide shows, a BIM process adds a much greater level of rigour to projects, but one that allows teams to collaborate far more effectively to the benefit of all concerned. Designs are more accurate, appropriate and less wasteful, with re-work and errors all but eliminated. This means that the overall risk of the project is reduced and the chances of increased profit are greatly increased. Even when the rest of the team may not be doing BIM, the internal benefits to an engineering practice of sharing data and coordinating their own processes will still reap benefits.

 

CFA Piling vs. Rotary Bored Piling

CFA PILING

CFA (Continuous Flight Auger) piles are quick to install and they offer an efficient solution for more lightly-loaded structures.

Using our CFA rigs, we can offer the best and most cost-effective solution for our clients’ projects across the UK. Our knowledge and expertise, as well as our experienced site team and on-board technology, means that we can monitor quality and performance real-time.

CFA technology offers the ideal solution for projects in urban locations because it eliminates vibration and disturbance to adjacent structures, and it reduces noise emissions.

Continuous CFA piles are suitable for most soil conditions and construction projects. They are the best and most effective solution when piling is required close to existing buildings, or in built-up areas because this piling approach is virtually vibration free, and it has low noise levels.

CFA Drilling technique: Continuous flight auger piles are constructed rotating an auger string into the ground by injecting concrete under a minimum pressure through the hollow stem of the auger. The soil is replaced with concrete in one continuous movement as the auger is withdrawn. After the pile head is cleared of debris, steel reinforcement is plunged into the pile concrete.

The technique requires no additional ground support, such as casing or drilling fluids, because the bore is self-supporting as the auger is rotated into the ground and the concrete supports the bore after extraction.

Ground conditions: CFA piling is amenable to a broad range of ground conditions from medium dense sands and gravels through to stiff clays and even low grade rock. The technique is not recommended in very soft clays or silts or in very loose sands or gravels.

 

Advantages of CFA Piling:

  • High production rates mean that piles are commercially attractive
  • Broad range of auger sizes (300mm to 1200mm diameter) means that the most economical use of construction materials is possible
  • Depths of up to 25m means that CFA piling is effective for low to mid-range loading thus suitable for most commercial and residential projects
  • Low noise emissions
  • Virtually vibration free

Sectors: residential, commercial (multi-storey), urban locations

 

CFA PILE CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE 

ROTARY BORED PILING

Rotary Bored Piling is carried out by our Large Diameter Piling (LDP) rigs which offer higher power (torque) than our CFA rigs so they are more agile and able to overcome underground obstructions.

When constructing rotary bored piles we have the ability to quickly change coring or digging tools and auger type to best suit soil conditions. We can also install plunge columns in the pile to facilitate top-down construction. Compared with other piling techniques LDP can offer larger load capacities and be installed to far greater depths.

Drilling technique: Rotary bored piles are constructed by rotating a casing into the ground to support poor or granular ground and then removing the pile bore using an auger, bucket or coring unit attached to a telescopic Kelly bar. Once the bore is fully cleaned out to design depth, the pile concrete is tremied into the bore and the casing is extracted leaving a finished pile. Typically, pile reinforcement is cast into the pile during concreting.

Ground conditions: Rotary piling can be employed in almost all ground conditions from soft ground supported by temporary casing through to high grade very strong rock cored in to open-hole techniques.

 

Advantages of Rotary Bore Piling:

  • Amenable to almost all ground conditions including rock drilling
  • Depths achievable up to 60m with casing and tool diameters up to 1.8m means that very high capacity loads can be achieved
  • Minimal ground disturbance and vibration – resulting risk to adjacent structures and property is limited
  • Simple and efficient installation process
  • Ability to construct sockets into underlying rock
  • Larger diameters feasible
  • Can extend to greater depths when compared with any other piling technique

Sectors: commercial (tower), civils, marine

 

ROTARY BORED PILE CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE

Types Of Concrete And Their Strengths

Finding the right type of concrete for your project is essential for getting the best results. Here at EasyMix Concrete we design and supply a huge range of concrete strengths and grades to ensure the ideal solution for any project or application.

Concrete Mixes

Most concrete mix designs use the same type of raw materials: cement, water and aggregate (usually sand and stone), in different ratios. Some types of concrete have additional materials added to give specialist qualities, such as:

  • Fibres – enhanced strength
  • Plasticisers – free flowing, better workability
  • Retarding agents – reduce rate of setting
  • Accelerating chemicals – increase rate of setting
  • Corrosion inhibitors – reduce corrosion of steel rebars 

Have a look through our glossary of concrete types to make sure you get the right concrete for your project. If you’re not sure, or would like to discuss you requirements, simply give the team at EasyMix a call. Even if we can’t supply the exact type of concrete you require, we’ll be more than happy to discuss your project, recommend alternatives and ensure you get the right materials for the best results.

Glossary of Commercial Concrete Types

C7/8 / GEN 0

C7 & 8 concrete mix, Gen 0 concrete or wet lean mix concrete, is commonly used in both commercial and domestic projects for a huge range of general applications, such as kerb bedding, haunching and backing, domestic foundations and blinding.

Ideal for: Cavity filling, kerbing, domestic foundations & haunching.

C10 / GEN 1

C10 concrete, or Gen 1 concrete is an extremely versatile mix used throughout the construction industry for general and housing applications. This includes un-reinforced strip, trench fill and and agricultural applications.

It can also be used for drainage works and blinding house floors, as well as pad foundations and non-structural mass concrete in non-aggressive ground conditions.

Ideal for: Foundations for steps, trench fill, floor blinding & drainage works.

C15 / GEN 2

C15 concrete or Gen 2 concrete is suitable for house floors with no embedded metal. It also provides the ideal material for flooring when no permanent finish or floor covering will be installed, such as carpet or tile.

Ideal for: Foundations for small walls, sheds & conservatories. Paving for steps and paths.

C20 / GEN 3

C20 concrete mix and Gen 3 concrete is commonly used for lightweight domestic applications and foundations, such as driveways and garage, shed & workshop bases. It can also be used to construct internal floor slabs so long as they contain no embedded metal.

Ideal for: Foundations for large walls, garages, houses & extensions. Paving for patios. Reinforced bases & oversites for conservatories, garages, sheds, greenhouses.

C25 / ST 2

C25 standardised mix concrete or ST2 Concrete is widely versatile and used in numerous commercial and domestic projects. It is commonly used for footings and foundations, including mass concrete fill, trench fill and reinforced fill, as well as general groundworks. It can also be used for kerbing, infilling around manholes and small bases for external furniture, such as patios.

Ideal for: Foundations and reinforced bases for houses & extensions. Trench fill, kerbing & patios.

C30 / PAV1 / ST 3

C30 concrete, PAV1 concrete and ST 3 concrete are the most common types of concrete used for pavement construction.

It is also ideal for lighter use external applications, such as slabbing, as well as outdoor paved areas such as stables, driveways, walkways, patios and garages.

PAV 1 mixes have an air entrainment additive to create standard sized air bubbles in the concrete. This helps to protect the surface from freeze-thaw cycles, making it especially useful for outdoor paving.

Ideal for: Paving external kennels and reinforced hard standings. Reinforced bases for workshops and unreinforced bases for houses & extensions.

C35 / PAV2

C35 concrete and PAV2 concrete is a heavy-duty use concrete. It offers high quality similar to PAV1, but is much more substantial making it suitable for commercial and industrial use. Common applications include raft foundations, piling and external slabbing and pacing that will be subject to the constant loading and scraping imposed by industrial vehicles and machinery.

PAV 2 mixes have an air entrainment additive to create standard sized air bubbles in the concrete. This helps to protect the surface from freeze-thaw cycles, making it especially useful for outdoor paving.

Ideal for: Reinforced bases for commercial buildings and agricultural light storage areas.

C40

C40 concrete is a strong commercial grade concrete mix most commonly used in the construction of structural and support beams, footings and foundations, roadworks, and in agricultural use.

Ideal for: Foundations for septic tanks, paving HGV parks and agricultural yards.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HOT ROLLED STEEL AND COLD ROLLED STEEL

hot and cold rolledCustomers often ask us about the differences between hot rolled steel and cold rolled steel. There are some fundamental differences between these two types of metal. These differences relate to the ways these metals are processed at the mill, and not the product specification or grade.

Hot Rolled

Hot rolling is a mill process which involves rolling the steel at a high temperature (typically at a temperature over 1700° F), which is above the steel’s recrystallization temperature. When steel is above the recrystallization temperature, it can be shaped and formed easily, and the steel can be made in much larger sizes. Hot rolled steel is typically cheaper than cold rolled steel due to the fact that it is often manufactured without any delays in the process, and therefore the reheating of the steel is not required (as it is with cold rolled). When the steel cools off it will shrink slightly thus giving less control on the size and shape of the finished product when compared to cold rolled.

Uses: Hot rolled products like hot rolled steel bars are used in the welding and construction trades to make railroad tracks and I-beams, for example. Hot rolled steel is used in situations where precise shapes and tolerances are not required.

Cold Rolled

Cold rolled steel is essentially hot rolled steel that has had further processing. The steel is processed further in cold reduction mills, where the material is cooled (at room temperature) followed by annealing and/or tempers rolling. This process will produce steel with closer dimensional tolerances and a wider range of surface finishes. The term Cold Rolled is mistakenly used on all products, when actually the product name refers to the rolling of flat rolled sheet and coil products.

When referring to bar products, the term used is “cold finishing”, which usually consists of cold drawing and/or turning, grinding and polishing. This process results in higher yield points and has four main advantages:

  • Cold drawing increases the yield and tensile strengths, often eliminating further costly thermal treatments.
  • Turning gets rid of surface imperfections.
  • Grinding narrows the original size tolerance range.
  • Polishing improves surface finish.

All cold products provide a superior surface finish, and are superior in tolerance, concentricity, and straightness when compared to hot rolled.

Cold finished bars are typically harder to work with than hot rolled due to the increased carbon content. However, this cannot be said about cold rolled sheet and hot rolled sheet. With these two products, the cold rolled product has low carbon content and it is typically annealed, making it softer than hot rolled sheet.

Uses: Any project where tolerances, surface condition, concentricity, and straightness are the major factors.

The difference between civil engineering and structural engineering

Civil and structural engineering are two engineering disciplines. The engineering disciplines deal with designing, evaluation, preservation and construction of elements. The difference between civil engineering and structural engineering is tricky. This is because the task of discerning the two disciplines would be difficult before understanding the concepts behind each of the careers.

Civil engineering

This is one of the oldest engineering disciplines. Its history dates back to the ancient times when people began building shelters for themselves. The engineering discipline is offered in the universities and the field of specialization includes: roads, water treatment, canals and dams.

Civil engineering is offered in the university has a four year full time course. After graduation, civil engineers join subdisciplines of civil engineering.Therefore, it is very rare to find a course referred to as masters in civil engineering. The disciplines of civil engineering includes: Geotechnical engineering, transportation engineering, structural engineering and environmental engineering.

Structural engineering

Structural engineering deals with the designing, Analysis, building and maintenance of resisting or load bearing structures. Examples of those structures are: bridges, skyscrapers and dams. This is an engineering field which is offered in the universities as a subject under civil engineering and as a specialization which results in master’s degree or PhD.

What is the difference between civil engineering and structural engineering?

Even though both engineering disciplines belong to the same field, they vary in several aspects. One of the differences is that civil engineering focuses on design elements while structural engineering is more concern on inspecting the materials used for construction. The structural engineers are the one who are supposed to ensure that the materials used for construction can support the design of the structure.

Another difference between the two engineering courses is that civil engineering is offered as the first degree while structural engineering is offered as the 2nd or 3rd degree in engineering. A civil engineer is expected to perform the duties of a structural engineer. However, the vise versa is not true. In fact, structural engineering is a subject which is under civil engineering and it is also offered as masters or doctorate degree.

In conclusion, the two degree courses are very crucial when it comes to design and construction jobs. As a result, the engineering firms provide both civil and structural engineering services to its clients. Therefore, both engineering courses are significant in any of the construction or development projects.If you need to pursue any of the careers, it is important that you understand the differences mentioned above.