If you are removing internal or external load-bearing walls in a domestic property made from bricks and concrete blocks – all what you need to know:
Use a competent builder
It sounds obvious but it’s important that any building work is carried out by a competent builder. Trying to cut corners when it comes to building expertise will only cost you more in the long-run and could make work unsafe or illegal.
Commercial buildings or non-masonry buildings
If your property is a commercial building such as an office or shop, or if it’s made from materials other than bricks and concrete blocks, this article won’t meet your requirements and you will need an experienced structural engineer to design your steel beams.
Getting building regulations approval
If you are reading this article, you will already know that you need to get building regulations approval if you are: creating a new building, extending or structurally altering an existing building, or installing services or fittings such as sanitary facilities or windows. Building regulations approval is not the same as planning permission, which you may also need. If you are the owner of the property, you are ultimately responsible, so make sure your builder has complied with these rules.
Calculations and plans for any steel beams will need to be sent to a Building Control Officer to gain building regulations approval, and this is where we can help. High quality steel beam calculation reports are important.
The Building Control Officer will check that the calculations and building works comply with the building regulations. You can appoint a Building Control Officer from your local council or you can use a private sector approved inspector.
Find out more about the approval process
Weak or damaged masonry
If the proposed steel beam will be supported by masonry that is weak or damaged, we recommend that your competent builder re-builds this masonry.
Larger or less stable structures
Sometimes when knocking out a load-bearing wall, you will need to install a sort of steel goal post (where the steel beam is supported at both ends by steel posts). This is usually required when there isn’t enough masonry for the building to remain stable. If steel goal posts are required, this website won’t meet your requirements and you will need an experienced structural engineer to design these for you.
Steel goal posts are not generally required if the geometry of the masonry complies with the guidance in the Building Regulations Approved Document A (check diagrams 5 and 14). It’s hard to summarise this document, but as a rough guide you won’t need steel goal posts if:
*you have walls on all four sides and the floor area does not exceed 70m², or
*you have walls on three sides and the floor area does not exceed 36m².
The existing foundations are usually good enough to support the steel beams, however, the foundations should be exposed and inspected by your Building Control Officer. We have restricted the length of steel beam that you can select, to ensure that the loads applied to the foundations are not excessive.
General rules about steel beams
* The ends of steel beams should not be located above lintels or door or window openings.
* The ends of steel beams should not clash with any existing beams or lintels.
* The steel beam should not be inserted into a chimney and should not be within 50mm of a flue.
* The steel beam should be seated on a large piece of load bearing masonry, with a plan area of bonded masonry of at least 0.1m².
* The steel beam must have at least 100mm end bearing and should be seated on padstones as indicated on our calculations.
*The supporting masonry should comply with the requirements of Approved Document A.
These structural calculations are based upon information provided by the client, should any variation between site conditions and the information provided by the client be identified, these calculations will be void.
Construction work not to be started until calculations have been approved by Building Control.
All construction work should be carried out by a competent builder.
The builder is responsible for all temporary supports and is to ensure that the structure is adequately supported during the works.
Steel beams are heavy components and may require mechanical lifting aids.
All weak or damaged masonry is to be re-built.
Existing foundations are assumed to be adequate, however, this is subject to exposing the existing foundations and an inspection for the satisfaction of the Building Control Officer.
Steel beam end bearings not to be located above lintels or openings.
Steel beam end bearings not to clash with or be located near the end bearings of existing beams or existing lintels.
Steel beam end bearing not to be inserted into a chimney or chimney breast.
Steel beam end bearing not to be located within 50mm of a flue.
Steel beam end bearings to be located on substantial load bearing masonry walls or piers. Plan area of bonded masonry supporting steel beam to be greater than or equal to 0.1m².
The minimum end bearing length at supports to be 100mm.
Supporting masonry to comply with Eurocode 6 or BS 5628.
Steel beams to be encased in fireline board to achieve 1/2 hour fire resistance in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.
No point loads or concentrated loads are to be applied to the steel beam.
The ends of every load bearing wall should be bonded or otherwise securely tied throughout the full height of the wall to a buttressing return wall, the return wall should not be less than 665mm long.
Walls exceeding 9m long should be provided with intermediate buttressing support (wall, pier, chimney). Intermediate buttressing walls should not be less than 550mm long.
Buttressing end return walls and intermediate buttressing supports should be provided in accordance with Approved Document ‘A’, which can be downloaded from the following website; http://www.planningportal.gov.uk.
CDM Regulations – Under the Construction (Design & Management) Regulations 2015 for commercial clients, the client duties apply in full. For Domestic clients, the client duties pass on to the Principal Contractor or Sole Contractor. For more information visit www.hse.gov.uk.